Terms and Conditions

Terms and Conditions

These Terms & Conditions Apply to all tournaments & events at Dusk Till Dawn and all events at third party venues licensed by Dusk Till Dawn.

Membership

  1. All visitors to Dusk Till Dawn must join as members.
  2. Membership is free. Visitors can sign up at reception on their first visit.
  3. Upon their first visit new members must provide a valid photo ID.
  4. Dusk Till Dawn uses 3rd party companies to complete sanction, adverse media & PEP checks for new & existing members.
  5. Dusk Till Dawn management reserves the right to suspend or review the membership of any members who fail these checks at any time.

Responsible Gaming

Dusk Till Dawn is committed to taking all reasonable steps in promoting responsible gaming. All employees are fully trained to look for signs of addiction. Leaflets and posters are prominently displayed to discourage problem gaming.

To help and support those with a gaming problem, Dusk Till Dawn has the following procedures in place:

  • Self-Exclusion from Dusk Till Dawn.
  • Self-Exclusion on the National SENSE database.
  • Fully trained staff available to help.
  • Confidential and friendly advice from our management team.

 

SENSE

SENSE is the voluntary Self-Enrolment National Self-Exclusion scheme launched in August 2015. It allows people who believe they have a problem with their gambling or need to take a break from gambling to enrol voluntarily in a scheme to exclude themselves nationally from all land-based casinos in the UK. The aim was to provide a scheme which would allow customers to self-exclude in a simple, transparent way.

How does it work?

Under the SENSE scheme, customers wishing to self-exclude can do so from any UK land-based casino. Once a customer has asked to be excluded through the SENSE scheme the customer’s information is shared with all casinos across the country and their details will be removed from all land-based casino marketing databases.

SENSE Terms & Conditions

  1. I always have the primary responsibility for excluding myself from casinos (including participating casinos) and ensuring that no one enters any casino (including participating casinos) on my behalf.
  2. The Betting and Gaming Council , through the SENSE scheme, offers a voluntary self-exclusion agreement between myself and all the participating casinos to help me to self-exclude, which I agree and acknowledge may be enforced against me (and any third party who seeks to enter any participating casino on my behalf) by all participating casinos.
  3. The minimum period of self-exclusion is 6 months and I cannot be removed from SENSE enrolment, or seek my removal or otherwise terminate my enrolment on the SENSE scheme, within that period. My enrolment will remain in place following that 6 months’ period unless or until I attend at any casino participating in the SENSE scheme and, whilst there, make a request in writing to have my enrolment cancelled and for me to be removed from self-exclusion.
  4. The end date of any existing self-exclusion agreements in place with one or more of the participating casinos will be varied in order to substitute in its place the end date of the SENSE voluntary self-exclusion once a SENSE enrolment application has been processed and I have thereby self-excluded through the SENSE scheme.
  5. Within seven days of my enrolment with the SENSE scheme, my membership of, and any and all loyalty schemes held with, participating casinos will be closed and automatically cease and terminate (notwithstanding their specific terms of termination) and the participating casinos shall have no liability to me in respect of such closure and termination.
  6. Save for exercising my right to be removed from SENSE, I will not enter or attempt to enter any casino premises (and nor will I seek, request, procure or otherwise encourage any third party to enter or attempt to enter any casino premises to gamble on my behalf) whilst enrolled on the SENSE scheme and should I do so I will be considered to have breached this agreement.
  7. Participating casinos will not be held liable for any matter whatsoever if I enter, or any third party on my behalf enters, a casino (including any participating casino) whilst selfexcluded through the SENSE scheme and I am and/or the said third party is able to gamble.
  8. I accept and agree that if I gamble, or if any third party on my behalf gambles, in a participating casino whilst I am enrolled with SENSE, otherwise than in circumstances considered by the relevant participating casino in its sole discretion to be exceptional:

(1) money or money’s worth staked by me, or by any such third party on my behalf, and any winnings arising therefrom will be forfeited; and

(2) gambling losses incurred by me, or by any such third party where they have gambled on my behalf, will not be reimbursed.

 In the above respect, "money or money’s worth staked" includes (without limitation) not only money, money’s worth, gambling chips and/or tokens paid to and accepted by a participating casino in respect of a gambling transaction but also:

a) gambling chips and/or tokens in respect of which, in advance of any gambling transaction taking place, money and/or money’s worth has been exchanged; and / or

b) money, money’s worth, gambling chips and/or tokens which have been inserted into a gaming machine or gambling terminal (whether or not any gambling transaction has taken place)

  1. My application to be removed from self- exclusion will not automatically be granted and I will be requested to discuss any such application with a casino manager.
  2. A 24 hour time period may be required to elapse before I am allowed to enter a casino premises after my initial request for removal from the SENSE scheme.
  3. The personal information and photograph I have provided in the SENSE enrolment form are accurate and, in the case of the photograph, is a true likeness of me.
  4. Privacy Notice: Use of my Personal Information: I acknowledge that the Betting and Gaming Council and participating casinos will use (a) the personal information and photograph I have provided, (b) any personal information possessed or provided by participating casinos that is directly related to my self-exclusion, and (c) any additional personal information possessed or provided by the participating casinos or any of them that relates to breaches or attempted breaches by me and that may be useful to support my wish to be excluded from casino gambling and from all participating casinos, for the following purposes: (a) to provide the voluntary self-exclusion service that I have requested, (b) for the purposes of performing this agreement, including the enforcing of any rights and defending of any claims, (c) for the purposes of complying with their regulatory obligations; and (d) as otherwise may be set out in the SENSE privacy policy https://bettingandgamingcouncil.com/uploads/Downloads/SENSE-PRIVACY-POLICY.pdf 

NB please note that references to the previous operator of the SENSE scheme, the National Casino Forum (or “NCF”), should be read and understood as references to the current operator of the scheme, the BGC).

For the avoidance of doubt, this Clause 12 overrides anything to the contrary in the SENSE privacy policy, to the extent of any conflict between them.

  1. If any provision of the terms and conditions of any participating casino at any time conflict with any provisions of this agreement, this agreement shall prevail.
  2. REMOVAL from enrolment with SENSE does not reinstate ANY membership that I may have had or ANY loyalty scheme I may have participated in.
  3. I have been advised that it is in my own best interests not to take part in any form of gambling and I have been informed where I can obtain further advice about problem gambling.
  4. No failure or delay by the Betting and Gaming Council (or a participating casino) to exercise any right or remedy provided under this agreement or by law shall constitute a waiver of that or any other right or remedy, nor shall it prevent or restrict the further exercise of that or any other right or remedy. No single or partial exercise of such right or remedy shall prevent or restrict the further exercise of that or any other right or remedy.
  5. Save in respect of the participating casinos being capable of enforcing the provisions of this agreement, a person who is not a party to this agreement has no right under the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 to enforce any term of this agreement.
  6. This agreement and any dispute or claim (including non-contractual disputes or claims) arising out of or in connection with it or its subject matter or formation shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the law of England and Wales.


GAMCARE

We fully support GamCare, an organisation committed to promoting responsible attitudes towards gaming and who provide care for those harmed by gaming dependency.

If you have difficulty controlling your gaming, or someone close to you has a problem, please contact GamCare by calling the help line on 0808 8020 133 for confidential one-to-one advice and support.

 General

  1. Floor people- They are to consider the best interest of the game and fairness as the top priority in the decision making process. Unusual Circumstances can on occasions dictate that decisions in the interest of fairness take priority over the technical rules. The floors decision is final.
  2. Official Language- The English only rule must be adhered to at the table. This includes to outside influences. Should a player wish to talk in a foreign language they must leave the table.
  3. The Chip Race- When it is time to colour up chips, they will be raced off with a maximum 1 chip going to any player. A player cannot be eliminated from a tournament in a chip race. We encourage players to witness the chip race.
  4. Odd Chips- The odd chips will go to the high hand. In flop games when there are two or more high hands or 2 or more low hands, the odd chips will be awarded to the player left of the button during showdown.
  5. Each side pot will be split one at a time and before any boards will be completed, thus reducing risk of error.
  6. Calling for a clock- Should a player have had sufficient time, any player at the table can call a clock. The dealer will call the floor and if both the dealer and the floor person agree that it is fair to put the player on the clock, then the player will have 60 seconds plus an additional 10 second countdown to make an action, should the player not act in this time, their hand will be declared dead.
  7. Dead Button- Tournaments and Cash games operate using a dead button.
  8. Penalties and Disqualification- Should a player act against the rules or the order of play, the floor person will penalise the offender with either a warning, a 1 round penalty, a 2 round penalty or even more. Should a player be a repeat offender, he will be subject to more severe penalties and possibly to the grounds of Disqualification. -If a player is on a penalty, they must remain outside of the tournament area until they are told that they can return. Through-out the penalty the play will blind away as normal. -A player who is disqualified will have their chips removed from the tournament. All penalties will be dealt with once the hand has reached conclusion.
  9. At your seat- to have a LIVE hand a player must be at their seat when the first card leaves the deck. If they are not at their seat the hand will be deemed dead. Dealers are instructed to muck hands once all hold cards have been distributed. At your seat is defined as in reach of the chair, however the floor will have last say on the matter, and even if within reach of the seat your hand could be deemed dead if there is any risk of the player seeing other player’s cards.
  10. All in Showdown- In an all-in situation, all players that reach showdown should must show their hands.
  11. Raise Requirements- If a player puts in a raise of 50% or more of the previous bet/raise, but less than a minimum raise, the player will have to make the raise upto a minimum raise. In no limit and pot limit, a raise all-in that doesn’t meet the required minimum raise will not re-open the betting to the previous aggressor.
  12. Oversized Chip- An oversized chip will be considered a call if the player does not announce otherwise. If a player puts an oversized chip into the pot whilst stating only ‘raise’, the raise will be for the full value of the chip that entered the pot. Any verbal declarations must occur before the chip lands over the betting line.
  13. No Disclosure – No Advice – One player to a hand- Players cannot expose their hand. Although it isn’t binding, they can declare a hand whilst in play. Players cannot discuss other player’s hands unless the hand is heads up. During hands, no players can seek help from any source whether involved or not involved directly in the game, One player to a hand rule is in play, and should there be any outside influence, the hand will be declared dead with the player subject to penalty, outside influence also ejected.
  14. Speech Play – This is permitted, during hands only players holding cards can discuss anything related to the game. Multiway speech play is allowed, however players cannot discuss other players hands unless heads-up. Speech play must not contravene the Code of Conduct.
  15. Random Seats- Tournament and Satellite seats will be randomly assigned. We do however have a family and friends rule, whereby we try to keep these separate to avoid chances of collusion.
  16. Communication Devices- A player may not use a Mobile Phone whilst actively involved in a hand. Should a player still be on the phone when the final card is dealt to the button, their hand will be deemed dead. Whilst active in the hand, the player must not touch there phone. Kindles/iPads are allowed at the table, though they are not allowed on the poker table cloth surface. Again these should be left whilst a player is active in a hand. Players on the TV table are not permitted to use their mobile devices whilst at the table including phones, tablets and laptops, and any such infringement will reduce in penalties. We cannot however prevent any players from receiving information from friends watching the stream elsewhere.
  17. Deck Changes- Deck changes will be determined by the house.
  18. New Limits- When time has elapsed the blinds will be raised, these will be announced by the Tournament Director. The blinds will go up in the first hand of the new level (start of the new hand being the first riffle).
  19. Reloads/Rebuys- Should a player want a Reload/Rebuy, they must make the dealer aware, this way they will be dealt into the following hand with a known stack including the rebuy. Upon request the player is obligated to pay for the reloads/rebuy.
  20. Higher Denomination Chips- These chips must be clearly visible at all times.
  21. Rabbit Hunting- No rabbit hunting is allowed.
  22. Breaking tables- All players will receive a table and seat number upon the breaking of a table. All players must go straight to their new seat. Not doing so will be punished with a penalty. On arrival at a new table players can fill any position at the table, though they will miss the first hand should they be positioned between the Button and the Small Blind.
  23. Chips- When moving table’s chips must remain visible whether in trays or hand. Chips must not be put in pockets, or carried by anybody other than the play or a member of staff assigned by the Tournament Director. During Breaks all chips must remain at the table. Failure to abide by these rules could lead to penalty or even disqualification.
  24. Balancing tables – In Flop Games when balancing tables, players from the big blind will be moved to the open position that will pay the big blind first. Play will be paused should a table be 3 players short of the standard at any given time.
  25. Raises – There is no cap on the number of raise in no-limit games. A minimum raise must be the previous raise interval + total of last bet. In Limit events there will be a limit to the number of raises until heads up. Even when heads up the house limit will apply.
  26. Misdeals- In Flop Games the following constitute a misdeal:
  • One of the first two cards dealt being exposed.
  • Two cards being exposed in all.
  • A boxed card appear in the original deal.
  • A card flying off of the table.
  • A player not receiving the required number of cards. Players can be dealt two consecutive cards on the button. In stud games if any of the players two down cards are exposed it is instantly a misdeal.
  1. Failure to shuffle or cut the deck- No matter how much action has taken place, if it turns out that either of these have taken place the hand will be void.
  2. Unprotected Hands- If a dealer kills an unprotected hand, the players hand will be dead and they will lose any chips that are invested in the pot. However, should a player have an uncalled raise in the pot, they will lose the previous calling amount.
  3. Card Speak- Dealers cannot kill a winning hand that has been tabled and was clearly the winning hand. Players are encouraged to assist in reading tabled hands and point out any errors about to be made.
  4. Verbal Declarations- These are binding. Verbal action out of turn will be treated like a completed action. Should the action not change your action will stand, should the player change the action (raise) you get all chips back with all options.
  5. Exposing cards- A player who exposes cards with action pending may incur penalty. The players hand will NOT be dead and the hand will play out as normal.
  6. Methods of raising- in no limit and pot limit a raise must be made either: -Verbal declaration -Placing the full amount across the betting line in one motion. -Announcing raise, placing the call amount across the line, followed by the additional raise amount.
  7. Ethical play- Poker is an individual Game. Soft play will result in penalties or possibly straight disqualification.
  8. Pot size- Only in pot limit games can players ask the dealer how much is in the pot.
  9. Button in heads-up- The button will always be the small blind when heads-up. A player cannot be the Big Blind both in the final hand of 3 handed and the 1st hand of heads-up.
  10. Etiquette violations- this will result in warnings and escalating penalties when repeat offending. These include:
  • Leading out of turn
  • Touching another players cards or chips
  • Delaying the game
  • Excessive chatter
  1. Order of Showdown- should aggressive action take place on the river, the last aggressor must show his hand first. Should the action be checked around on the river, order of showdown will move around left of the button.
  2. Last Man Standing Rule- The last live hand wins the pot without having to show any cards. Example A heads-up pot, Player A bets the river, Player B calls, A mucks. In this instance B wins as the last live hand and does not have to give up any information by showing his hand. Had player A shown then mucked Player B would had to show to claim the pot.
  3. Action Pending- Players must remain at the table if they still have action pending on a hand.
  4. String raises- Dealers will be responsible for calling string raises. Any objections, the floor will have the final say.
  5. Playing the Board- Players must still show both cards if they are playing the board and want to claim part of the pot.
  6. The information provided on this website is intended for informational purposes only and is subject to change without notice. Information may be changed or updated without notice.

Registration and Cancellation Policy

  1. All tournaments need a minimum of 10 players registered to start. If the tournament is a satellite with a guaranteed prizepool, it will need at least 10 entrants above the guaranteed seat amount to start. If the tournament is the Final Table Chop it will need a minimum of 27 runners to start.
    – If the tournament does not have the minimum required runners the Tournament Director can use his/her discretion to delay the start of the tournament by up to one hour to meet the minimum requirement.
  2. Some tournaments may have a capped or limited, number of seats. Should the capacity be reached management reserve the right to increase the cap or allow players to register as alternates.
  3. Alternates and late registrants are permitted to play and will receive a full starting stack where capacity permits.
  4. Provided a player registers before the end of the late registration period they will be able to play in the tournament. In this case, players will be allowed to withdraw if they feel their stack is not enough Big Blinds for the level, they are eventually entered in. This decision must be made BEFORE sitting down at the table.
  5. There may be a stated re-buy period dependent upon the competition type. The number of re-buys may also be restricted for certain competitions. An allocated time will be given in which re-buys are permitted.
  6. During Re-Entry tournaments players that get knocked out and re-enter will not be penalised with a chip penalty.
  7. If a registered player is going to be late, or not available to play, and would like to be removed from the competition, they must notify the club before the start of the clock to receive a full refund. The club can be emailed on support@dusktilldawnpoker.com or called on 0115 8454 300.
  8. Players who have not notified the club that they wish to be removed from the competition prior to the end of the late registration period, will be included. These players will receive cards and post blinds accordingly. They will not be entitled to a refund.
  9. Management reserve the right to amend or change this policy at any time.
  10. Management decision is final.
  11. Errors and omissions excepted.
    *This Registration and Cancellation Policy is subject to change during partner events. 

Dusk Till Dawn Competition Policies

  1. Dusk Till Dawn Multi-Table Tournaments will be dealt with varied table capacities, generally 8 or 9-handed, but tournament type and capacity may mean this is altered.
  2. Tournaments and Cash Games are played out to Dusk Till Dawn, or authorised partner, rules.
  3. All competitions must be played to a conclusion, either until one player remains or a deal is agreed by all remaining players. Prizes will then be awarded accordingly.
  4. If two or more players at the same table are eliminated on the same hand, then they will be eliminated based on chip count at the start of the hand. If two or more players are eliminated at the same time on different tables, then the players will split the prize money equally.
  5. If a result has not been reached before the cardroom approaches closing time, or it is apparent that the contest will not finish naturally due to unforeseen circumstances, players will be informed as soon as possible that a chip count maybe required to conclude the tournament. The tournament will then be settled using ICM.
  6. Deals Policy. Deals are permitted on Dusk Till Dawn tournaments, they must be done based on ICM, this will ensure that fair deal takes place. If the event is a trophy event, 10% of the first-place prize money must be left to play for and the tournament must play to a Champion. Should there be one or more seats involved in the prizepool, negotiations can take place once ICM figures have been given. All negotiations must be supervised by the tournament Director who will step in should they think that a deal is unfair.
  7. We advise that all players read the Code of Conduct as a guide to help players know what is and is not acceptable behaviour.
  8. All payouts at Dusk Till Dawn will be made using the player’s buy-in method, however, limits on certain methods may be capped and therefore large tournament winnings may processed as a bank wire to the winner.
  9. Additional Rules may be posted to cover special circumstances.
  10. Management reserve the right to amend or change this policy at any time.
  11. Management decision is final.
  12. Errors and omissions excepted.
    *This Competition Policy is subject to change during partner events. 

Live Streaming and Media Policy

  1. Dusk Till Dawn and partner tournaments may often be filmed for live streaming, TV or post-productions, by participating in any event at Dusk Till Dawn you agree that Dusk Till Dawn, DTDLIVE and authorised third party partners may use your name, photo or video footage in any way we see fit, and you grant us global image rights to use this material.
  2. Players playing on the TV table agree that we can broadcast their play on a short delay over live streaming services, and/or on TV and create highlight videos and clips which may be used on, but not limited to, Dusk Till Dawn and authorised third party partners, websites, TV channels and social media. Players cannot opt out of this coverage as it affects the integrity of the tournament.
  3. Players playing on the TV table are required to position their hole cards in such a way that the table can read the cards and display the cards on the steam / video footage, as directed by the Dealer, and / or Floor Staff or Media Team. Players do not have the right to opt out ensuring their hole cards are read.
  4. Players on the TV table are not permitted to use their mobile devices whilst at the table including phones, tablets and laptops, and any such infringement will result in penalties. We cannot however prevent any players from receiving information from friends watching the stream elsewhere.
  5. The TV table may feature commentary from various people including, but not limited to, Dusk Till Dawn approved commentators and special guests. The opinions of the commentators and guests are their own and are not necessarily the opinions of Dusk Till Dawn or DTDLIVE.
  6. During some events, live blogging and event photography may take place at Dusk Till Dawn. By participating in tournaments that have coverage you agree that Dusk Till Dawn, DTDLIVE, PokerNews, & pre-approved third parties may use your name, photo and information relating to your actions in the tournament on their website, social media and other media channels.
  7. Media waivers and reminders of these policies may be on display or distributed during festivals and events.
  8. By playing a DTD event, you agree to accept and adhere to these Terms and Conditions, failure to accept or adhere to these Terms and Conditions may result in players being disqualified from the tournament with no refund or financial compensation due.
  9. Management reserve the right to amend or change this policy at any time.
  10. Management decision is final.
  11. Errors and omissions excepted.
    *This Live Streaming & Media Policy is subject to change during partner events. 

Satellite and Seat Winners

Online Satellite Tickets:

  1. All seats won in Direct Online Satellites are subject to the terms and conditions of the online partner for that specific tournament.
  2. If a player wins more than one seat it is their responsibility to use all of their seats for the target event or as part of the terms set out.
  3. Seats are non-transferable and non-refundable.
  4. Management decision is final.

Seats Won Live (Included in prizepools):

  1. Seats won included in prizepools are retained on the player’s club account at Dusk Till Dawn.
  2. A player who wins a seat in a live event prizepool must use the seat for the specified event.
  3. Seats are non-transferable and non-refundable.
  4. If a player wins a seat included in a prizepool they can choose which Day 1 they wish to play.
  5. If a player wins a seat included in a prizepool and they wish to play an Online Day 1 they must request the entry as an Online ticket from the Dusk Till Dawn Cash Desk.
  6. Management decision is final.
  7. Errors and Omissions excepted.

Seats Won Live (Live Satellites):

  1. All seats won in Live Satellites must be used for the specified Event/Day 1.
  2. If a player wins more than one seat it is their responsibility to use all of their seats for the target event.
  3. Seats are non-transferable and non-refundable.
  4. Management decision is final.
  5. Errors and Omissions excepted.

Seats Won via Social Media (Or Partners):

  1. All winners who win seats in giveaway promotions or via third parties must be members of, or permitted to join, Dusk Till Dawn.
  2. All seats won in giveaway promotions or via third party partners must be used for the specified Event/Day 1.
  3. If a player wins more than one seat it is their responsibility to use all of their seats for the target event.
  4. Prize winners must have their identity verified by confirming name and date of birth.
  5. If any specific terms are set out by a third party partners they must be adhered to.
  6. Seats are non-transferable and non-refundable.
  7. Management decision is final.
  8. Errors and Omissions excepted.

Cash Game Specific Rules

  1. All players must report to the Cash Game Desk or a Cash Game Supervisor before taking a seat. This also includes people hoping to move tables as we operate with a balanced table system wherever possible.
  2. General House Poker Rules apply to Dusk Till Dawn Cash Games.
  3. All games have advertised buy-in limits, all players are expected to adhere to these when seated at a new table. These limits will also apply to players sat at the table wishing to add to their stack. Players are allowed just one under-buy if stacked in a game.
  4. All games will be raked as advertised, they will also get promotional charges as advertised.
  5. No flop = No rake
  6. Split Pots are raked.
  7. When starting new Cash Games, the dealer button position will be decided by a draw for high card between starting players.
  8. Players are responsible for their own hands, should they not make dealers aware of errors in advance of the next hand starting (first riffle), there will be no motions to correct.
  9. No Weeding - Any chips that have been in play must remain in play until you wish to leave the game completely.
  10. In the event of a player leaving a game, if they intend to return to the game within 3 hours they are expected to return with at least the amount they left the game with.
  11. It is not a requirement to post when joining a new table, or when returning from a break, if this is abused it will be treated as an etiquette violation.
  12. When joining a table, if situated between the button and the Small Blind, players will be given the option to buy the button rather than wait to join play, this will require the player to post both a small and big blind with the small taking part as a dead blind in the pot.
  13. Players CANNOT transfer from one table to another without the approval of the Cash Game Supervisors. Offenders will be expected to return to the original seat or leave cash games entirely.
  14. Showdown- Last live hand wins with no requirement to show a winning hand.
  15. Showdown order- If there is an aggressive action on the river betting, the last aggressor must show first. If it is checked around on the river, left of the button shows first and it continues around in a clockwise order.
  16. In all in situations with pots exceeding 100bbs, players are permitted to run it either once or twice, should they wish to run it twice they must clearly agree and have it approved by a supervisor. In PLO games the event should also be witnessed by a supervisor.
  17. No bomb pots allowed.
  18. All bets must be settled to complete a hand to ensure the game can progress to a new hand, a player can exit the table or a new player can join.
  19. At the conclusion of a game, 2 flips will be allowed rake free, additional flips will be raked to the usual game rules.
  20. Cash Game Team and managements decisions are final, the Cash Game Team will make decisions in the best interests of the game. People being disruptive or acting in an unfair manner may well be asked to leave for the session and be subject to Dusk Till Dawn General Membership rules in terms of suspension.
  21. Errors and omissions excepted.